Tuesday, 31 May 2011
A.The way that meaning is made using the conventions of the particular medium and type of media product. A broader category allowing candidates to write about elements of semiotics, genre, narrative, design, structure, codes and conventions, time and space, aesthetics, spoken, written and visual language to name just a few examples. One specific example would be the use of continuity editing in a film sequence.
Friday, 20 May 2011
Oink - Oink's Pink Palace (frequently written as OiNK) was a prominent BitTorrent tracker which operated from 2004 to 2007. Following a two-year investigation by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), and the British Phonographic Industry (BPI), the site was shut down on 23 October 2007, by British and Dutch police agencies. These music industry organisations described OiNK as an "online pirate pre-release music club", Alan Ellis was tried for conspiracy to defraud at Teesside Crown court, the first person in the UK to be prosecuted for illegal file-sharing, and found not guilty on 15 January 2010
The Pirate Bay (commonly abbreviated TPB) is a Swedish website that hosts torrent files and provides magnet links. It bills itself as "The world's most resilient bittorrent site" and is ranked as the 85th most popular website in the world and 17th in Sweden by Alexa Internet since 2008 and has over 4 million registered users. According to the Los Angeles Times, The Pirate Bay is "one of the world's largest facilitators of illegal downloading" and "the most visible member of a burgeoning international anti-copyright or pro-piracy movement".
Initially established in November 2003 by the Swedish anti-copyright organization Piratbyrån (The Piracy Bureau) the website has been run as a separate organization since October 2004. The website used to be run by Gottfrid Svartholm and Fredrik Neij who are known as anakata and TiAMO, respectively. They have both been charged with "assisting in making copyrighted content available" due to their involvement in The Pirate Bay. On 31 May 2006, the website's servers in Stockholm were raided by Swedish police, causing it to go offline for three days. On 15 November 2008, The Pirate Bay announced that it had reached over 25 million unique peers. The Pirate Bay has been involved in a number of lawsuits, both as plaintiff and as defendant. On 17 April 2009, Peter Sunde, Fredrik Neij, Gottfrid Svartholm and Carl Lundström were found guilty of assistance to copyright infringement and sentenced to one year in prison and payment of a fine of 30 million SEK (app. 4,200,000 USD; 2,800,000 GBP; or 3,100,000 EUR), after a trial of nine days. The defendants have appealed against the verdict and the judge was accused of bias. On 26 November 2010, a Swedish appeals court returned the verdict, decreasing the original prison terms but increasing the fine to 46 million SEK. On 17 May 2010, due to an injunction against their bandwidth provider, the site was taken offline. However, access to the website was later restored with a message laughing off the injunction on their front page. On June 23, 2010 the group Piratbyrån disbanded due to the death of Ibi Kopimi Botani, a prominent member and co-founder of the group.[12
LimeWire is a free peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) client program that runs on Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and other operating systems supported by the Java software platform. . A free software version and a purchasable "enhanced" version are available.
On October 26, 2010, US federal court judge Kimba Wood issued an injunction forcing LimeWire to prevent "the searching, downloading, uploading, file trading and/or file distribution functionality, and/or all functionality" of its software in Arista Records LLC v. Lime Group LLCAs a result of the injunction, LimeWire 5.5.11 and newer have been disabled using a backdoor installed by the company. However, version 5.5.10 and all prior versions of LimeWire remain fully functional and cannot be disabled unless a user upgrades to one of the newer versions. The program has been "resurrected" by the creators of LimeWire Pirate Edition.
Napster - Shawn Fanning -
Napster is an online music store and a Best Buy company. It was originally founded as a pioneering peer-to-peer file sharing internet service that emphasized sharing audio files that were typically digitally encoded music as MP3 format files. The original company ran into legal difficulties over copyright infringement, ceased operations and was eventually acquired by Roxio and later by Best Buy. For more information about the current service, see Napster (pay service).
Wednesday, 6 April 2011
Thursday, 24 March 2011
Monday, 7 March 2011
|1990||. ARPAnet ends. Tim Berners-Lee creates the World Wide Web.|
|1992||"Surfing the Internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly.|
|1993||. Mosaic Web browser developed by Marc Andreesen at University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana.|
• Web grows by 341,000 percent in a year.
|April 1994||. Netscape Communications founded.|
• Jeff Bezos writes the business plan for Amazon.com.
. Java's first public demonstration.
|Dec. 1994||Microsoft licenses technology from Spyglass to create Web browser forWindows 95.|
|May 23, 1995||. Sun Microsystems releases Java.|
|August 24, 1995||. Windows 95 released.|
|1996||. Domain name tv.com sold to CNET for $15,000. Browser wars begin. Netscape and Microsoft two biggest players.|
|1997||. business.com sold for $150,000.|
|January 1998||. Microsoft reaches a partial settlement with the Justice Department that allows personal computer makers to remove or hide its Internet software on new versions of Windows 95.|
. Netscape announces plans to give its browser away for free.
|1998||. US Depart of Commerce outlines proposal to privatize DNS. ICANNcreated by Jon Postel to oversee privatization. Jon Postel dies.|
|1999||•AOL buys Netscape; Andreesen steps down as full-time employee.|
• Browsers wars declared over; Netscape and Microsoft share almost 100% of browser market.
• Microsoft declared a monopoly by US District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson.
•Shawn Fanning creates Napster, opening the possibilities of peer-to-peer file sharing and igniting a copyright war in the music industry.
|2000||. Fixed wireless, high-speed Internet technology is now seen as a viable alternative to copper and fiber optic lines placed in the ground.|
. The Dot-Com Bubble bursts. A majority of the dot-coms ceased trading after burning through their venture capital, often without ever making a net profit.
|January 10, 2000||• AOL Merges with Time-Warner. AOL shareholders take 55% stake in newly formed company.|
|February 2000||. A large-scale denial of service attack is launched against some major Web sites like Yahoo! and eBay, alerting Web sites to the need for tighter security measures.|
. 10,000,000 domain names have been registered.
|September 2000||. There are 20,000,000 websites on the Internet, numbers doubling since February 2000.|
|July 2001||. A federal judge rules that Napster must remain offline until it can prevent copyrighted material from being shared by its users.|
. The Code Red worm and Sircam virus infiltrate thousands of web servers and email accounts, respectively, causing a spike in Internet bandwidth usage and security breaches.
|November 2001||. The European Council adopts the first treaty addressing criminal offenses committed over the Internet.|
. First uncompressed real-time gigabit HDTV transmission across a wide-area IP network takes place on Internet2.
|January 2002||. .name begins resolving|
|January 2003||. The SQL Slammer worm causes one of the largest and fastest spreading DDoS attacks ever, taking only 10 minutes to spread worldwide.|
. The Internet celebrates its 'unofficial' 20th birthday.
|September 2003||. The RIAA sues 261 individuals for allegedly distributing copyright music files over peer-to-peer networks|
|December 2003||. The Research project "How much information 2003" finds that Instant messaging generates five billion messages a day (750GB), or 274 Terabytes a year and that e-mail generates about 400,000 terabytes of new information each year worldwide.|
|2005||. YouTube.com launches|
|2006||. There are an estimated 92 million Web sites online|
|May 2006||. A massive DDOS assault on Blue Security, an anti-spam company, is redirected by Blue Security staff to their Movable Type-hosted blog. The result is that the DDOS instead knocks out all access to over 1.8 million active blogs.|
|August 2006||. AOL announces that they will give for free virtually every service for which it charged a monthly fee, with income coming instead from advertising.|
|. There are an estimated 92 million Web sites online (some stats say over 100 million)|
. Google Inc. acquires YouTube for $1.65 billion in a stock-for-stock transaction.
|January 2007||. Microsoft launches its various consumer versions of Microsoft Vista.|
|February 2007||. Apple surpasses one billion iTunes downloads.|
|March 2007||. 1.114 billion people use the Internet according to Internet World Stats.|
|April 2007||. Search engine giant Google surpasses Microsoft as "the most valuable global brand," and also is the most visited Web site.|